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Drum and Bass (often abbreviated DnB) is a style of electronic dance music typified by fast beats and heavy basslines. It formed out of the UK rave scene in the early 1990s, and has since seen both significant mainstream attention and the creation of several subgenres. At 160-180 BPM, the tempo is much faster than most other forms of club music, and often features elements a lot more complex in construction.
The most common drum break used in Drum and Bass is the Amen break - sampled from the The Winstons' "Amen, Brother" - and like the genre's use of practically every drum break, it is taken apart until each drum hit is separate, allowing for new beats to be constructed, incorporating an intense use of syncopation and polyrhythms.
"I've seen a lot of different things happen to Drum'N'Bass this year... different words...jungle this- jungle that, intelligent this, intelligent that, one thing you've got to remember is that it's UK subculture and it's music. There's only one thing I believe in - underground music." Goldie 1995
Jungle is an Electronic Dance Music style that is now known as the forerunner of most Drum and Bass genres. Originally developed in the early 90s, it began when Breakbeat Hardcore producers from labels like Suburban Base Records and Reinforced Records began experimenting with faster tempos, deeper basslines, and more complex songwriting.
During this period, it still was known to British club DJs as normal breakbeat hardcore until 1992-93, where it started to obtain its identity. The jungle sound is often meant to be rave-oriented but it caused various types of it to develop since then, with three being the most prominent.
The earliest jungle records as demonstrated by Goldie's earlier alias Rufige Kru and Bay B Kane originally used the sounds of breakbeat hardcore and emphasized the dark atmosphere and basslines, which began to be nicknamed as 'darkcore' jungle. It helped raise its popularity as a contrary reaction to the upbeat mood of Happy Hardcore.
Other artists such as early Foul Play and Nookie became known for keeping the more melodic, upbeat rave sound popularized with the more accessible hardcore and House styles when comparing to the gritty 'darkcore' style.Around 1994, this kind of jungle became more relaxed and chilled-out, using less frantic breakbeats to have a more stronger focus on the atmosphere and melodies, later becoming as a blueprint for newer Atmospheric Drum and Bass productions.
Another sound which centered on Reggae and Hip Hop (and sometimes Contemporary R&B) elements and samples that were experimented with breakbeat hardcore years before began to circulate, that would either be fused with either 'darkcore' or uplifting styles, headlined by Remarc and 4 Hero's Tom and Jerry alias, becoming the most popular style of the jungle sound that received the most airplay. The popularity of the exhibition of Ragga deejay vocals and samples raising through the scene saw the beginning of Ragga Jungle as a result.
The main characteristics of jungle as described above involve sample-oriented production, energetic or chaotic-sounding drum breaks, a strong bassline, and sometimes piano/synth chord riffs based on Hardcore and house productions from the era. Jungle began to decline in the 90s due to the more modern drum and bass styles becoming more popular, but still has a huge underground following to this period.
"Meanwhile at Metalheadz we stay true to our roots: drum and bass music is one of the most innovative and amazing art forms. It’s like modern day jazz, it can encompass any style, it can convey any emotion, present any message, it can be entrenched in complexity or it can revel in genius simplicity."